Hello, future learner. You are not currently logged in.
Register OR Login
Or Give This Course as a Gift!

Learning

Estimated Lesson Time: 3 hours 30 minutes (self-evaluated option) / 5 hours 30 minutes (instructor-evaluated option)

This is a sample lesson or if you are a student you are not logged in. You can view the course material, but to access all the course content, interact with other students, save your progress, and earn the certificate of completion, you must register and login.

Lesson Introduction

In this chapter we look at how psychologists have studied learning and what we know about how humans learn looking at how both biological and cognitive psychologists have studied learning. We look in detail at classical conditioning, in which we learn that one stimulus signals the arrival of another connecting events in our environment, and at operant conditioning, which focuses on connections between our behaviors and their consequences. The chapter also focuses on both the biological and cognitive aspects of learning, looking at biological predispositions and then latent and observational learning.

Lesson To Do List

Proceed to each section below. Click on the header bar to expand the section and follow the instructions in that section. Once complete, click on each item that you have completed.

Read Griggs, Chapter 4
Read Lilienfeld, Myth #15, #16, #17, #18
Watch the lesson presentation
Watch the videos (optional)
Match the lesson terms with the definitions
Review the discussion questions
Do the assignment(s)
Take the quiz

Lesson Presentation (01:14:45)

To Do: View all the slides in the presentation or view to the end. Be sure to click the "Next" button to advance through the slides.

You have viewed this entire presentation!


Contents


Click To Begin Presentation (01:14:45)

This is an interactive presentation that may contain both images and audio. Click through to next slide when you have come to end of each slide. Click to clear viewed slides status.

Activate presentation autoplay. This will play the next slide without requiring you to click the "Next Slide" button. To stop the presentation once it has played, click the "Contents" button.

Expand

Lesson Videos

To Do: Watch all of the videos not marked optional. Click to clear watched video status.

You have watched all of the required videos! Click to clear watched video status.

Classical Conditioning - Ivan Pavlov (00:03:55)

Video on Classical Conditioning

The Little Albert Experiment | Psychology is Nuts (00:04:42)

[Optional] The history of psychology is rife with frightening tales of unethical experiments. The 1919 case of Little Albert is particularly disturbing. Josh fills you in on the dark origins of one of the major breakthroughs in behavioral psychology.

Bandura and Social Learning Theory (00:03:23)

A look at the the social learning theory of aggression with original footage the the 'bobo' doll experiment.

Lesson Podcast

Lesson Terms and Definitions

To Do: Match the correct terms with the definition.

A stimulus that is innately reinforcing.
Reinforcement in which an appetitive stimulus is presented.
Acquiring a new response (the conditioned response) to a previously neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) that reliably signals the arrival of an unconditioned stimulus.
A stimulus-response pair in which the stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus) automatically elicits the response (the unconditioned response).
A principle developed by Edward Thorndike that says that any behavior that results in satisfying consequences tends to be repeated and that any behavior that results in unsatisfying consequences tends not to be repeated.
The application of classical and operant conditioning principles to eliminate undesirable behavior and to teach more desirable behavior.
The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
Punishment in which an appetitive stimulus is removed.
A stimulus that is unpleasant.
A stimulus that decreases the probability of a prior response.
The tendency for an animal to drift back from a learned operant response to an innate, instinctual response to an object.
Punishment in which an aversive stimulus is presented.
The finding that operant responses that are reinforced on partial schedules are more resistant to extinction than those reinforced on a continuous schedule.
The process by which the probability of a response is increased by the presentation of a reinforcer.
The desire to perform a behavior for external reinforcement.
Learning by observing others and imitating their behavior.
The elicitation of the conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus. The more similar the stimulus is to the conditioned stimulus, the stronger the response.
A partial schedule of reinforcement in which a reinforcer is delivered after the first response is given once a set interval of time has elapsed.
Acquiring a new response (the conditioned response) to the conditioned stimulus.
A partial recovery in strength of the conditioned response following a break during extinction training.
The set of internal and external factors that energize our behavior and direct it toward goals.
A theory of motivation that proposes that our behavior is motivated by incentives, external stimuli that we have learned to associate with reinforcement.
The temporary recovery of the operant response following a break during extinction training.
A partial schedule of reinforcement in which the time that must elapse on each trial before a response will lead to the delivery of a reinforcer varies from trial to trial but averages to a set time across trials.
A decrease in an intrinsically motivated behavior after the behavior is extrinsically reinforced and then the reinforcement is discontinued.
A law describing the relationship between the amount of arousal and the performance quality on a task—increasing arousal up to some optimal level increases performance quality on a task, but increasing arousal past this point is detrimental to performance.
The stimulus in a reflex that automatically elicits an unconditioned response.
A classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus and remains present until after the unconditioned stimulus is presented so that the two stimuli occur together.
Reinforcement in which an aversive stimulus is removed.
The strengthening of a reinforced operant response.
Reinforcing the desired operant response each time it is made.
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing property through learning.
Neurons that fire both when performing an action and when observing another person perform that same action.
A stimulus that is pleasant.
The response in a reflex that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
The stimulus that comes to elicit a new response (the conditioned response) in classical conditioning.
The response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus in classical conditioning.
A classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus but is removed before the unconditioned stimulus is presented so that the two stimuli do not occur together.
Giving the operant response in the presence of stimuli similar to the discriminative stimulus. The more similar the stimulus is to the discriminative stimulus, the higher the operant response rate.
A theory of motivation that proposes that our behavior is motivated to reduce drives (bodily tension states) created by unsatisfied bodily needs to return the body to a balanced internal state.
The diminishing of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus no longer follows the conditioned stimulus.
The process by which the probability of a response is decreased by the presentation of a punisher.
A partial schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses it takes to obtain a reinforcer varies on each trial but averages to a set number across trials.
Reinforcing the desired operant response only part of the time.
A stimulus that increases the probability of a prior response.
The stimulus that has to be present for the operant response to be reinforced.
A record of the total number of operant responses over time that visually depicts the rate of responding.
Learning to give the operant response only in the presence of the discriminative stimulus.
A theory of motivation that proposes that our behavior is motivated to maintain an optimal level of physiological arousal.
Learning to associate behaviors with their consequences. Behaviors that are reinforced (lead to satisfying consequences) will be strengthened, and behaviors that are punished (lead to unsatisfying consequences) will be weakened.
The elicitation of the conditioned response only by the conditioned stimulus or only by a small set of highly similar stimuli that includes the conditioned stimulus.
The principle that the opportunity to perform a highly frequent behavior can reinforce a less frequent behavior.
A partial schedule of reinforcement in which a reinforcer is delivered each time a fixed number of responses is made. The fixed number can be any number greater than one.
Training a human or animal to make an operant response by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired response.
Learning that occurs but is not demonstrated until there is incentive to do so.
The diminishing of the operant response when it is no longer reinforced.

Lesson Discussion Questions

What is classical conditioning? Provide an example.
Provide an example of delayed and trace conditioning.
Where is classical conditioning used?
Explain stimulus generalization and discrimination.
What is operant conditioning? Provide an example and explain how positive and negative reinforcements and punishments are used.
Explain timing / schedules in operant conditioning.
Explain the different theories of motivation.
Provide an example of observational learning.
Why are intelligence tests not biased against certain groups of people?
Why is sticking with your hunch when unsure of the answer not the best test-taking strategy?
Why isn't reversing letters the defining characteristic of dyslexia?
Do students need to have teaching match their learning styles? Why or why not?

Lesson Assignments

Assignment #1:

This assignment is for students with the instructor-evaluated course option.

Write a one-page paper on any 3 (three) of the key terms in Chapter 4. Use at least two sources outside of the textbook to get extra information on the terms. When writing the assignment, think about teaching your fellow students about the terms. Use examples and make it interesting.
Assignment #2Answer one of the following question found in the "Lesson Discussion Questions" section using the discussion section below, and respond to/comment on at least one student's post. Comment on a post that has no comments yet, if possible.

Lesson Quiz

This is a sample lesson or if you are a student you are not logged in. You can view the quiz, but you will not be able to submit your answers.

This lesson's quiz comprises 10 multiple choice questions. Choose the best answer. Achieving passing score of 80% will register this lesson as complete if you have also passed the manually-reviewed assignments. You can take the quiz as many times as you wish.

Take the Quiz for this Lesson


    From the Course:
    Academics
    Introduction To Psychology
    Bo Bennett, PhD
    Social Scientist, Business Consultant
    (1 ratings)
    Academics : Social Science
    Offered by BooksToCourses.com
    $30.00 $19.00
    $499.00 $299.00
    Lesson Progress
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

    This lesson is not yet complete. Still left to do: Lesson Presentation, Lesson Videos, Terms and Definitions, Assignments, Quiz

    Lessons

    Lessons greyed out are for enrolled students only.

    #2: The Science of Psychology
    #3: Neuroscience
    #4: Sensation and Perception
    #7: Cognitive Biases
    #8: Thinking and Intelligence
    #9: Developmental Psychology
    #10: Personality Theories and Assessment
    #12: Abnormal Psychology
    #13: Course Summary and Final Assignment
    Please Share!

    Haven't shared this course yet? It's not too late! Use one of the buttons below.


    Discuss This Lesson

    Comments hidden in public view to respect student privacy.



    Lesson Quiz

    Be sure to click the "Submit Quiz Answers" at the end of the quiz to save and submit your quiz answers. Select the best answer.

    1) In Pavlov’s classical conditioning research, a tone was used as the ______, and food inserted in the mouth served as the ______.
    a) UCS; CS
    b) CS; UCS
    c) UCR; CR
    d) CR; UCR
    2) In classical conditioning, the diminishing of the CR following removal of the UCS is called ______.
    a) acquisition
    b) discrimination
    c) extinction
    d) generalization
    3) In reinforcement, the probability of a behavior ______; in punishment the probability of a behavior ______.
    a) increases; increases
    b) increases; decreases
    c) decreases; increases
    d) decreases; decreases
    4) Negative reinforcement occurs when an ______ stimulus is ______.
    a) appetitive; presented
    b) appetitive; removed
    c) aversive; presented
    d) aversive; removed
    5) The stimulus in whose presence a response will be reinforced is called the stimulus ______ in operant conditioning.
    a) generalization
    b) discriminative
    c) acquisition
    d) extinction
    6) Piecework in a factory is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement; a slot machine is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement.
    a) variable-ratio; fixed-interval
    b) fixed-interval; variable-ratio
    c) fixed-ratio; variable-ratio
    d) variable-ratio; fixed-ratio
    7) Which of the following is an example of a secondary reinforcer?
    a) money
    b) a money order
    c) a check
    d) all of the above
    8) The ______ effect is a decrease in an intrinsically motivated behavior after the behavior is extrinsically reinforced and the reinforcement discontinued.
    a) overjustification
    b) partial reinforcement
    c) shaping
    d) instinctual drift
    9) The results of Bandura’s Bobo doll studies illustrate ______, and Tolman and Honzik’s studies of latent learning indicate the importance of ______ in maze learning by rats.
    a) observational learning; the overjustification effect
    b) observational learning; cognitive maps
    c) the partial-reinforcement effect; the overjustification effect
    d) the partial-reinforcement effect; cognitive maps
    10) Continuing to take Advil because it alleviates headaches is an example of ______, and no longer parking in “No Parking” zones because you lost money in fines for doing so is an example of ______.
    a) positive punishment; positive reinforcement
    b) positive reinforcement; positive punishment
    c) negative punishment; negative reinforcement
    d) negative reinforcement; negative punishment
    submitting answers...

    BooksToCourses.com Privacy Policy Technical Support
     Website Design and Software Copyright 2017, Archieboy Holdings, LLC.